PrIMAVeRa – Frequency of bloodstream infections caused by six key antibiotic-resistant pathogens for prioritization of research and discovery of new therapies in Europe: a systematic review



To prioritize healthcare investments, ranking of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria should be based on accurate incidence data.


We performed a systematic review to estimate frequency measures of antimicrobial resistance for six key bacteria causing bloodstream infections (BSI) in European countries.


We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase databases, and the ECRAID-Base Epidemiological-Network platform.


We included studies and surveillance systems assessing resistance-percentage, prevalence, or incidence-density of BSI because of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosaAcinetobacter baumanniiKlebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, third-generation cephalosporins-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


Reviewers independently assessed published data and evaluated study quality with the modified Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool. Pooled estimates were determined using random effects meta-analysis. Consistency of data was assessed using random effects meta-regression (Wald test, p > 0.05).


We identified 271 studies and 52 surveillance systems from 32 European countries. Forty-five studies (16%) reported on BSI, including 180 frequency measures most commonly as resistance-percentage (88, 48.9%). Among 309 frequency measures extracted from 24 (46%) surveillance systems, 278 (89%) were resistance-percentages. Frequency measures of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium BSI were more frequently reported from Southern Europe and Western Europe (80%), whereas carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa BSI from Northern Europe and Western Europe (88%). Highest resistance-percentages were detected for carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (66% in Central Eastern Europe) and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (62.8% in Southern Europe). Pooled estimates showed lower resistance-percentages in community versus healthcare-associated infections and in children versus adults. Estimates from studies and surveillance systems were mostly consistent among European regions. The included data was of medium quality.


Pathogen-specific frequency measures of antimicrobial resistance in BSI are insufficient to inform antibiotic stewardship and research and development strategies. Improving data collection and standardization of frequency measures is urgently needed.

Mupirocin resistance in S. aureus was infrequent in both blood and colonizing isolates. Furthermore, in the years 2003–2021, a decreasing trend in the annual rate of S. aureus bloodstream infections was observed. Targeted mupirocin-based decolonization of S. aureus carriers undergoing haemodialysis is a sustainable measure for preventing healthcare-associated infections.

Authors:Diletta Pezzani, M., Arieti, F., Babu Rajendran, N., Barana, B., Cappelli, E., De Rui, M. E., Galia, L., Hassoun-Kheir, N., Argante, L., Schmidt, J., Rodriguez-Bano, J., Harbarth, S., de Kraker, M., Primrose Gladstone, B., Tacconelli, E.

Source: ScienceDirect, Journal of Hospital Infection