Abstract: The Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) is a group of diverse environmental and clinically relevant bacterial species associated with a variety of infections in humans. ECC have emerged as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the activity of NOSO-502 and colistin (CST) against a panel of ECC clinical isolates, including different Hoffmann’s clusters strains, and to investigate the associated resistance mechanisms. NOSO-502 is the first preclinical candidate of a novel antibiotic class, the odilorhabdins (ODLs). MIC50 and MIC90 of NOSO-502 against ECC are 1 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively, with a MIC range from 0.5 μg/mL to 32 μg/mL. Only strains belonging to clusters XI and XII showed decreased susceptibility to both NOSO-502 and CST while isolates from clusters I, II, IV, and IX were only resistant to CST. To understand this phenomenon, E. cloacae ATCC 13047 from cluster XI was chosen for further study. Results revealed that the two-component system ECL_01761-ECL_01762 (ortholog of CrrAB from Klebsiella pneumoniae) induces NOSO-502 hetero-resistance by expression regulation of the ECL_01758 efflux pump component (ortholog of KexD from K. pneumoniae) which could compete with AcrB to work with the multidrug efflux pump proteins AcrA and TolC. In E. cloacae ATCC 13047, CST-hetero-resistance is conferred via modification of the lipid A by addition of 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose controlled by PhoPQ. We identified that the response regulator ECL_01761 is also involved in this resistance pathway by regulating the expression of the ECL_01760 membrane transporter.
Authors: Pantel, L., Guérin, F., Serri, M., Gravey, F., Houard, J., Maurent, K., Attwood, M., Noel, A., MacGowan, A., Racine, E., Cattoir, V., Gualtieri, M.
Source: American Society for Microbiology, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy